[Late Archaic Period] [Southern Ontario Projectile Points] [London Chapter Menu]
SIZE: Innes points may be described as medium sized points ranging from 32 to 50 mm in length (mean 39.5 mm), 17 to 31 mm in maximum width (mean 21.9 mm) - usually corresponding to shoulder width, and from 5 to 8 mm in thickness (mean 6.3 mm).
SHAPE: In outline, the points have convex lateral blade edges, slightly sloping to slightly barbed shoulders and an expanding stem base with a convex to straight basal edge. In cross section lenticular forms are most common.
FLAKING: Innes points tend to be coarsely flaked, but the primary shaping of the point rarely leaves any broad surfaces unscared. Marginal secondary retouch is usually discontinuous, being used primarily to remove edge sinousity. One of the more notable characteristics of these points is their basal grinding, which often extends up the lateral edges of the stem.
RAW MATERIAL: At the type site Onondaga chert is the predominate material type used, though Kettle Point chert and (Pennsylvania?) jasper examples were also noted.
DISTRIBUTION: Innes points are amongst the numerous Archaic forms which have received little attention in the literature. As with many of the other styles, their lack of outstanding formal characteristics inhibits their recognition amongst mixed assemblages of more classic types. Aside from those 40 points and point fragments from the type site a few kilometres west of Brantford Ontario, other examples are reported from the Grand River drainage and westward in South-western Ontario. Examples from the Butterfield site in Day County Michigan (Wobst, 1968) are also notable.
AGE & CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS: Charcoal samples from the Innes type site are presently being prepared for submission for radiocarbon dating. A Late Archaic date of c. 1000 to 2000 B.C. is expected.
REMARKS: Innes points exhibit formal similarities and probable temporal affinities to Late Archaic Crawford Knoll points (Kewa 80-3), to the Haldimand complex at the Bruce Boyd site (Spence and Fox, 1979; Spence, Williamson and Dawkins, 1978) and to an unnamed Late Archaic manifestation at the Butterfield site in Michigan (Wobst, 1965). With regard to these affinities, Innes points are longer and slightly wider. Basal grinding is also noted at the Butterfield site and only rarely occurs at Crawford Knoll. Similarities are also noted with points classified as Brewerton and Feeheley points in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan (Kinsey, 1972; Fitting, 1970) and particularly with some of the Pennsylvania variants of Perkiomen broadspears (Kinsey, 1972); all of which display similar forms and are often basally ground, but tend to be wider than Innes points.
REFERENCE: Lennox, P. - 1982 Innes Points. KEWA 82-5. ( Text of Original Publication )
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