OAS - London Chapter

[Late Archaic Period] [Southern Ontario Projectile Points] [London Chapter Menu]


Crawford Knoll
SIZE: Crawford Knoll points range from 25-40 mm. in length, 15-20 mm. in maximum width, 7-12 mm. in hafting width and 4-8 mm. in thickness. Most of the points cluster at the small end of the stated length and width ranges.

SHAPE: In outline the points have convex lateral edges; bases range from convex to straight. The haftinq element varies from side notched to expanding stemmed. Cross-sections are usually biconvex but in some specimens they are almost bitriangular.

FLAKING: The workmanship is quite variable: some points are well finished (for example, the "type" specimen in the upper corner of this page) but others are rather crudely made with asymmetrical outlines. The points are made in two different ways: most are manufactured with the "classic" bifacial reduction technique but some are just marginally retouched flakes. At the Crawford Knoll site, there are preforms from both production techniques. The bases are rarely ground.

RAW MATERIAL: At the Crawford Knoll site, Kettle Point (Port Franks) chert is the predominant raw material.

DISTRIBUTION: This description is based on points from the Crawford Knoll site near the St. Clair River delta, Kent Co. Little specific information is available about the distribution of this type elsewhere in Ontario (see the REMARKS section below for a discussion of possibly related material). One reason for this paucity of information is that Crawford Knoll points are small and rather variable in form; they are simply not as conspicuous in surface collections as more distinctive types (Meadowoods or Genesees, for example).

AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS: While the type site is as yet undated, Crawford Knoll points are presumed to belong to the Late Archaic period. They should date somewhere between c. 1500 and 500 B.C.

REMARKS: There are two excavated sites in south-western Ontario which have produced points similar to the ones found at Crawford Knoll. At the Knechtel I site in Bruce Co., J.V. Wright excavated a Late Archaic assemblage which contained small notched points of quite variable form. The carbon dates for Knechtel are 1740, 1300, 1090 and 938 B.C. At the Bruce Boyd site in Norfolk Co. (Ont. Arch. Pub. No.29) burials were associated with artefact offerings from both the Meadowood (Early Woodland ) and "Haldimand" complexes. The Haldimand points strongly resemble the Crawford Knoll specimens. There is a 520 B.C. date for the Bruce Boyd site. The presently available evidence suggests that Crawford Knoll points and related forms are characteristic of the indigenous terminal Archaic peoples of south-western Ontario. These small, notched points do not seem to be very closely related to contemporaneous cultures to the east in New York State (e.g. the Susquehanna tradition). Crawford Knoll points, however, may be related to forms used by groups in the American Midwest. The Late Archaic Riverton culture of Illinois has two point types, Merom expanding stem and Trimble side notched, which are similar in both size and shape to Crawford Knoll points. The Riverton culture sites have carbon dates which range between 1600 and 1100 B.C.

REFERENCE: Kenyon, I. - 1980 Crawford Knoll Point. KEWA 80-3. ( Text of Original Publication )

[Genesee] [Adder Orchard] [Innes Point]
[Late Archaic] [Southern Ontario Projectile Points] [London Chapter Menu]

Copyright , The London Chapter of the Ontario Archaeological Society.