OAS - London Chapter

[Early Woodland Period] [Southern Ontario Projectile Points] [London Chapter Menu]


SIZE: Using published data from Illinois (Munson 1971), and unpublished data from the Fitzgerald site (AfGw-82), Town of Haldimand, Ontario, typical specimens have the following measurements: length 40- 71 mm; max. width 17-40 mm; max. thickness 5-14 mm; blade length 22-52 mm; stem length 10-22 mm; and, stem width 12-20 mm.

SHAPE: A stemmed lanceolate, the Kramer point tends to have a straight to slightly convex base. The stems are long, usually over one third the length of the point. The stem sides are straight, contracting, or are occasionally excurvate in shape. The shoulders are prominent, often sloping from the stem in a wide arc, leaving a distinctive barb-like corner at the beginning of the blade. Blades are triangular or excurvate in shape, and are often heavily reworked and/or resharpened. Cross-sections arc usually bi-convex, but occasionally plano-convex in shape.

FLAKING: Flaking is not well executed, often leaving primary surfaces on one or both sides. Percussion flaking is used to shape the point from a leaf-shaped preform. The stem is produced by percussion flaking before pressure flaking shapes the final blade edges, tip, and hafting elements. Grinding is frequently used on the stem. Often the base is left unrefined, or thicker than the blade. This finishing technique is like the classic Lamoka point base.

RAW MATERIAL: In South-western Ontario these points have been made from Kettle Point, Onondaga, and Selkirk cherts. Exotic cherts tend to be from Michigan, such as Bayport and Norwood cherts.

DISTRIBUTION: Kramer points are found primarily in the lower Great Lakes areas (Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, northern Ohio, southern Ontario [Adams 1989; DeRegnaucourt 1992; Justice 1987]). Kramer-like points are seen throughout eastern Ontario, western New York and Quebec (Granger 1978; Jackson 1980; Ritchie & Funk 1973).

AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATION: Early to Middle Woodland periods: Kramer points are dated to 500 BC in Michigan at the Schultz site (Fitting 1972; Ozker 1982) and at other Early Woodland sites in Illinois and Indiana (Munson 1971). Kramer points probably were in use until circa AD 1 in the Midwest US and South-western Ontario. In eastern Ontario and Quebec, Point Peninsula sites still have stemmed points in their assemblages that resemble Kramer points (Emerson 1955; Dailey and Wright 1955; Levesque et at 1964).

REMARKS: It must he noted that at the recently studied fitzgerald site, Kramer points represent only about one-third of the point collection. The remainder are stemmed points with ovate stems, or stemmed points with convex bases. These non-Kramer points are similar to Adena, Robbins or Cresap points, but also made from the same cherts as the Kramer points. It is suggested that Adena, Robbins, Cresap, and Kramer points are contemporary in southern Ontario, beginning circa 500 BC, until AD I , or slightly later. Evidence is growing to indicate that these stemmed points of the late Early Woodland and early Middle Woodland periods may represent a technological or functional shift from small Early Woodland notched points (Meadowood) to larger lanceolates/knives of the latter Middle Woodland period. Kramer and other similar stemmed points from this time period should not be overlooked in comparison to other more obvious types such as 'Meadowood" or "Saugeen', when analyzing assemblages.

REFERENCE: Parker, L. - 1992 Kramer Points. KEWA 92-8. ( Text of Original Publication )

[Meadowood] [Meadowood Cache Blade]
[Early Woodland Period] [Southern Ontario Projectile Points] [London Chapter Menu]

Copyright , The London Chapter of the Ontario Archaeological Society.