[Middle Woodland Period] [Southern Ontario Projectile Points] [London Chapter Menu]
SIZE: These large bifaces display very high length to width ratios. Point metrics are: Length = 55-75 mm; Width = 40-60 mm; Internotch Width = 19-25 mm; Maximum Thickness = 8-9 mm.
SHAPE: Distinctive are round corner-notches on an ovate preform. Snyders points have convex lateral edges with long, barbed shoulders, and short expanding stems with a straight or slightly convex basal edge. Maximum width is just above the stem, which is often also the area of maximum thickness. Cross-sections are generally plano-convex, although biconvex specimens occur.
FLAKING: Snyders points are marked by a high degree of workmanship, rarely seen on contemporaneous, locally-made Saugeen points. As few as five or six broad, flat bifacial thinning flakes are removed from each lateral edge to finish the preform. The corner notch is produced by removal of one thick, round flake from the lower corner of each lateral edge. Marginal pressure retouch is discontinuous on the blade; more extensive retouch is used to finish the lower barbs and base. Specimens with edge bevelling may be resharpened points, and limited grinding or rubbing sometimes occurs on the base.
RAW MATERIAL: Upper Mercer chert and Flint Ridge chalcedony from Ohio are the primary materials for Ontario examples, although the point illustrated above from Kent County (courtesy of Mr. Frank Vink), was manufactured from Onondaga chert.
DISTRIBUTION: Snyders points or similar variants are occasionally found over much of south-western Ontario; however, frequencies appear to increase near Lakes Erie and St. Clair. Elsewhere, these points are widely distributed throughout the American Midwest (Montet-White 1968), and Ritchie reports similar forms from New York State (1961:49).
AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATION: Snyders points are an early to mid Hopewellian type and should date towards the end of the first half of the Middle Woodland stage in south-western Ontario. According to Montet- White (1968:175), they are commonly found in Illinois on sites dating between 200 B.C. and A.D. 50.
REMARKS: Much like the later Vanport points (Fox 1980), Snyders points were probably manufactured by Hopewellian craftsmen and imported by local Native peoples. Limited numbers of untyped, but related bifaces (often reaching extravagant lengths and widths), also entered Ontario in the earlier stages of the Middle Woodland period. The latter were likely valued status or ceremonial objects, while Snyders points represent a more utilitarian aspect of this developing north-south interaction.
REFERENCE: Murphy, C. - 1988 Snyders Points. KEWA 88-3. ( Text of Original Publication )
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